Article révisé par les pairs
  • Physical addiction occurs when the effects of the consumed substance rapidly decreases for a time after its consumption was stopped
Auteur:Cammaerts Tricot, Marie-Claire
Informations sur la publication:Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Statut de publication:A Paraître, 2018
Sujet CREF:Zoopathologie
Zoologie générale
Systématique des espèces [zoologie]
alkaloid drugs
Note publication spéciale:Conference: Academy of Aphasia 55th Annual Meeting , Baltimore, United States, 5 Nov - 7 Nov, 2017.
Note générale:Invertebrates are nowadays often used as biological models. Using ants as models, we have examined the effects of 21 substances, i.e. 16 drugs, a food additive and 4 sweeteners. Among the 16 studied drugs, 11 ones appeared to induce no addiction, while 5 ones induced obvious physical addiction. Each time some addiction was revealed, the decrease of the effects of the drug after its consumption was stopped was rapid, at least during a given time period. On the contrary, the effects of the drugs leading to no addiction always decreased slowly, regularly (sometimes linearly) in the course of time, after the drug consumption was stopped. The essential cause of physical addiction to a drug is thus a rapid decrease of its affects after the end of its consumption. This rapid decrease, even if short lasting, is perceived by the organism which then wants to consume again the drug. To prevent humans’ dependence on a drug, it should be important firstly to know that addiction may occur and secondly to precise, in the running time, the exact time period during which such an addiction could appear, i.e. the time period during which the effects of the drug decrease rapidly. Caring of patients during that critical time period may help avoiding addiction. Defining that critical time period could be done by experimenting on biological models; ants were proved to be such excellent models. The present paper shows the decrease of the effects of 11 drugs which lead to no addiction, as well as the decrease of the effects of 5 drugs (cocaine, nicotine, morphine, alprazolam, paroxetine) which lead to addiction. The critical time period of the latter drugs are each time defined. Readers and practitioners may be interested to some of these results. For example, they may be interested in knowing the critical time period for nicotine. They should also be advised about a difference between fluoxetine (the previously most consumed antidepressant) and paroxetine (the nowadays most consumed one). The former is very toxic (and is hence less used nowadays) but it leads to no addiction, the latter is less toxic (and is thus presently largely used) but it leads to addiction (as well as to some habituation). Humans become thus inclined to go on consuming paroxetine and even to increase their consumed amount.