Résumé : Human T-cell leukaemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infect T- and B-lymphocytes, respectively, provoking a polyclonal expansion that will evolve into an aggressive monoclonal leukaemia in ∼5% of individuals following a protracted latency period. It is generally assumed that early oncogenic changes are largely dependent on virus-encoded products, especially TAX and HBZ, while progression to acute leukaemia/lymphoma involves somatic mutations, yet that both are independent of proviral integration site that has been found to be very variable between tumours. Here, we show that HTLV-1/BLV proviruses are integrated near cancer drivers which they affect either by provirus-dependent transcription termination or as a result of viral antisense RNA-dependent cis-perturbation. The same pattern is observed at polyclonal non-malignant stages, indicating that provirus-dependent host gene perturbation contributes to the initial selection of the multiple clones characterizing the asymptomatic stage, requiring additional alterations in the clone that will evolve into full-blown leukaemia/lymphoma.