Résumé : In this work we examine the role of lateral phase separation in cholesterol-containing biomimetic membranes on the disrupting action of melittin using a label-free surface-sensitive technique, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Melittin disruption mechanisms depend strongly on the geometry of the lipid layer; however, despite the interplay between layer geometry/thickness and melittin activity, results indicate that the presence of lipid heterogeneity and lateral phase separation greatly influences the disrupting efficiency of melittin. In homogeneous non-raft forming membranes with high cholesterol content, melittin spontaneous activity is strongly delayed compared to heterogeneous raft-forming systems with the same amount of cholesterol. These results confirm the importance of lateral phase separation as a determinant factor in peptide activity. The information provided can be used for the design of more efficient antimicrobial peptides and the possibility of using a label-free approach for tailored-membranes and interactions with other types of peptides, such as amyloid peptides.