Résumé : It is demonstrated that interactions between nanoparticles and topological defects induce a twist-grain boundary phase in a chiral liquid crystal. The occurrence of this phase, the analogue of the Shubnikov phase in type-II superconductors, is driven by direct interactions between surface-functionalized CdSe quantum dots and screw dislocations. It is shown that, within an adaptive-defect-core-targeting mechanism, nanoparticles of appropriate size and functionalization adapt to qualitatively different cores of topological defects such as disclination lines and screw dislocations. This mechanism enables the effective reduction of the energetically costly, singular defect core volume, while the surrounding phase ordering remains relatively weakly affected. The findings suggest new pathways towards the controlled assembly of superstructures in diverse, symmetry-broken, condensed-matter systems, ranging from nanoparticle-decorated liquid crystals to superconductors.