Résumé : The Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) is a channel located in the outer mitochondrialmembrane of nearly all eukaryotic cells. It is responsible for the passage of numerous ions andmetabolites in and out of the mitochondria but is also involved in the regulation of the cell functionthrough interactions with other proteins. Its activity is known to be modulated by lipids. Experimentson Phaseolus coccineus VDAC32 (PcVDAC32) have notably suggested a direct interaction betweendioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) head group and the bean VDAC32. Moreover, moleculardynamic simulations have proposed that charged residues of the mouse VDAC1 could be involved indirect interaction with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) polar head.During this PhD thesis, we first constructed and optimised expression systems for production ofPcVDAC32 and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae VDAC1 (ScVDAC1) in yeast and assessed those forcomplementation in yeasts lacking their endogenous VDAC1. We then tested the effect of a polyhistidine-tag placed in C-terminal of the ScVDAC1 on its electrophysiological properties to validate itas a tool for VDAC study. We further analysed the effect of the lipid environment on the ScVDAC1and compared it with the results obtained for PcVDAC32. Finally, we assessed the effect of thesuppression of the Glu185 charge on the ScVDAC1 conductance, selectivity and voltage dependence.We found that expression of PcVDAC32 could complement the growth deficiency of the yeast lackingendogenous VDAC. We also showed that the presence of calcium ions in the experimental solutionsallowed the ScVDAC1 closed states to reach lower conductances. We observed that preincubation withergosterol greatly enhanced the reconstitution of ScVDAC1 in soy extract PLB. We demonstrated thatpH and salt concentration influence the ScVDAC1 functional characteristics and that, according tothose parameters, the presence of a 6xHis-tag can influence VDAC functions. Finally, we showed thatthe ScVDAC1 Glu185 located in the loop between β-strand 12 and 13 is involved in ScVDAC1selectivity and that its substitution by a glutamine residue decreases the ScVDAC1 sensitivity tomembrane curvature stress.