Thèse de doctorat
Résumé : This thesis is devoted to the study of different stochastic processes which have a common feature: they are Markov-modulated, which means that their evolution rules depend on the state occupied by an underlying Markov process. In the first part of this thesis, we analyse the stationary distribution and various first passage problems for Markov-modulated Brownian motions (MMBMs) as well as for two extensions: MMBMs with jumps and MMBMs modified by a temporary change of regime upon visits to level zero. The second part of this thesis is devoted to the use of Markov-modulated processes in mathematical finance, more precisely for the calculation of different option prices. We use a Fourier transform approach to price different European options (vanilla, exchange and quanto options) in the case where the value of the considered risky assets evolves like the exponential of a Markov-modulated Lévy process. The third part of this thesis is devoted to the study of some stochastic epidemic processes, namely the SIR processes. In our models, a Markov process is used to modulate the behaviour of the individuals who bring the disease. We use different martingale approaches as well as matrix analytic methods to obtain various information about the state of the population when the epidemic is over.