par Elskens, Yves R. ;Prigogine, Ilya
Référence Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 83, page (5756-5760)
Publication Publié, 1986
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : A canonical procedure transforming the unitary evolution group Ut in a contracting semigroup Wt for phase-space ensembles has been developed for Kolmogorov dynamical systems in a series of recent papers. This paper investigates the physical meaning of this transformation. We stress that, for sufficiently unstable dynamical systems in which phase-space points are identified with an arbitrary but finite precision, one must take into account the undiscernibility of trajectories having the same asymptotic behavior in the future. The fundamental objects of our description are thus bundles of converging trajectories. We show that such an ensemble, corresponding to initial conditions whose support has finite measure, is then represented by a distribution function (called a Boltzmann ensemble) that evolves to equilibrium under the action of a markovian semigroup. The usual Gibbs-Koopman ensembles satisfying the Liouville equation are recovered as a singular limit. This work validates Boltzmann's intuition for a class of unstable dynamical systems and appears as a step toward the derivation of equations exhibiting irreversibility at a microscopic level.