Résumé : In July 1994, a stream of Rwandan refugees entered the southern part of North Kivu Region, Zaire. The public health consequences of this crisis for the host population and health services have not been analysed up to now. The lack of human and financial resources did not prevent Zairian health structures and personnel from taking care of the many refugees settled outside the camps, following their arrival. The public health consequences of the crisis for the local population should be considered an integral part of the disaster. Copyright © 1995, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserved