Résumé : Background: Activating KRAS mutations are reported in up to 90% of pancreatic cancers. Refametinib potently inhibits MEK1/2, part of the MAPK signaling pathway. This phase I/II study evaluated the safety and efficacy of refametinib plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods: Phase I comprised dose escalation, followed by phase II expansion. Refametinib and gemcitabine plasma levels were analyzed for pharmacokinetics. KRAS mutational status was determined from circulating tumor DNA. Results: Ninety patients overall received treatment. The maximum tolerated dose was refametinib 50 mg twice daily plus standard gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 weekly). The combination was well tolerated, with no pharmacokinetic interaction. Treatment-emergent toxicities included thrombocytopenia, fatigue, anemia, and edema. The objective response rate was 23% and the disease control rate was 73%. Overall response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival were higher in patients without detectable KRAS mutations (48% vs. 28%, 81% vs. 69%, 8.8 vs. 5.3 months, and 18.2 vs. 6.6 months, respectively). Conclusion: Refametinib plus gemcitabine was well tolerated, with a promising objective response rate, and had an acceptable safety profile and no pharmacokinetic interaction. There was a trend towards improved outcomes in patients without detectable KRAS mutations that deserves future investigation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]