par Lheureux, Olivier ;Preiser, Jean-Charles
Référence Critical care, 18, 5, 571
Publication Publié, 2014
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Novel insights into the metabolic alterations of critical illness, including new findings on association between blood glucose at admission and poor outcome, were published in Critical Care in 2013. The role of diabetic status in the relation of the three domains of glycemic control (hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability) was clarified: the association between mean glucose, high glucose variability, and ICU mortality was stronger in the non-diabetic than in diabetic patients. Improvements in the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of stress hyperglycemia were presented. Novel developments for the management of glucose control included automated closed-loop algorithms based on subcutaneous glucose measurements and microdialysis techniques. In the field of obesity, some new hypotheses that could explain the 'obesity paradox' were released, and a role of adipose tissue in the response to stress was suggested by the time course of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein concentrations. In the field of nutrition, beneficial immunological effects have been associated with early enteral nutrition. Early enteral nutrition was significantly associated with potential beneficial effects on the phenotype of lymphocytes. Uncertainties regarding the potential benefits of small intestine feeding compared with gastric feeding were further investigated. No significant differences were observed between the nasogastric and nasojejunal feeding groups in the incidence of mortality, tracheal aspiration, or exacerbation of pain. The major risk factors to develop diarrhea in the ICU were described. Finally, the understanding of disorders associated with trauma and potential benefits of blood acidification was improved by new experimental findings.