Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Objective Protamine is used to neutralize heparin after patient separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Different bedside tests are used to monitor the adequacy of heparin neutralization. For this study, the interchangeability of the activated coagulation time (ACT) and thromboelastometry (ROTEM; Tem Innovations GmbH, Basel, Switzerland) clotting time (CT) ratios in children undergoing cardiac surgery was assessed. Design Single-center, retrospective, cohort study between September 2010 and January 2012. Setting University children's hospital. Participants The study comprised children 0 to 16 years old undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Exclusion criteria were preoperative coagulopathy, Jehovah's witnesses, and children in a moribund condition (American Society of Anesthesiologists score 5). Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results After heparin neutralization with protamine, the ratio between ACT, with and without heparinase, and the CT measured with INTEM/HEPTEM (intrinsic test activated with ellagic acid was performed without heparinase [INTEM] and with heparinase [HEPTEM]) using tests of ROTEM were calculated. Agreement was evaluated using Cohen's kappa statistics, Passing-Bablok regression, and Bland-Altman analysis. Among the 173 patients included for analysis, agreement between both tests showed a Cohen's kappa statistic of 0.06 (95% CI: -0.02 to 0.14; p = 0.22). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of 0.01, with a standard deviation of 0.13, and limits of agreement between -0.24 and 0.26. Passing-Bablok regression showed a systematic difference of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.16-0.59) and a proportional difference of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.42-0.86). The residual standard deviation was 0.11 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.22), and the test for linearity showed p = 0.10. Conclusion ACT, with or without heparinase, and the INTEM/HEPTEM CT ratios are not interchangeable to evaluate heparin reversal after pediatric patient separation from CPB. Therefore, the results of these tests should be corroborated with the absence/presence of bleeding and integrated into center-specific treatment algorithms.