Résumé : Iodide has direct effects on thyroid function. Several iodinated lipids are biosynthesized by the thyroid and they were postulated as intermediaries in the action of iodide. Among them, 2-iodohexadecanal (2-IHDA) has been identified and proposed to play a role in thyroid autoregulation. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of iodide and 2-IHDA on thyroid cell physiology. For this purpose, FRTL-5 thyroid cells were incubated with the two compounds during 24 or 48 h and several thyroid parameters were evaluated such as: iodide uptake, intracellular calcium and H2O2 levels. To further explore the molecular mechanism involved in 2-IHDA action, transcript and protein levels of genes involved in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, as well as the transcriptional expression of these genes were evaluated in the presence of iodide and 2-IHDA. The results obtained indicate that 2-IHDA reproduces the action of excess iodide on the “Wolff-Chaikoff” effect as well as on thyroid specific genes transcription supporting its role in thyroid autoregulation.