Résumé : Objective: To evaluate the effect of calcium (15 mmol/day) and vitamin D (625 μg/month), as single supplement or in combination, vs. no supplement on growth, clinical signs of rickets and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and dental health. Methods: Prospective controlled trial involving children aged 0-5 years living in four groups of villages in a KBD-endemic rural area of central Tibet who received either calcium and/or vitamin D or no supplement. The cohort was followed over 3 years. Primary outcome was the impact of the different supplementation regimes on KBD, rickets and growth; secondary outcomes were impact on urinary levels of calcium and phosphorus, biomarkers of bone and cartilage turnover, and dental health. Results: No difference was observed between the four groups with regard to anthropometric data, rickets, KBD, urinary levels of CrossLaps® and CartiLaps®. Weight for height or age, mid-upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness decreased in the four groups. Height for age increased and the prevalence of KBD fell in the four groups. Dental health was better in the group receiving calcium and vitamin D. Urinary calcium levels increased after 3 years of follow-up in all groups; the group receiving vitamin D had a higher increase (P-value: 0.044). The same global increase was observed for urinary phosphorus levels; the group receiving calcium had a higher increase (P-value: 0.01). Conclusions: Calcium and vitamin D failed to improve growth and bone metabolism of children living in a KBD-endemic rural area. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation improved dental health.