Résumé : The adsorption and electrochemical properties of the carbon nanofibres fluorinated using TbF4 as fluorinating agent have been investigated by nitrogen measurements and galvanostatic discharge in primary lithium batteries, respectively. These properties are compared to those obtained for carbon nanofibres fluorinated by pure fluorine gas (direct fluorination). The amount of structural defects, the formed structural phase and the possible partial exfoliation have been investigated in order to understand the properties difference for the CNFs fluorinated by the two routes. Higher amounts of both dangling bonds and CF2, CF3 groups were registered by EPR and 19F NMR for CNFs fluorinated by direct route. Moreover, SEM study underlines the partial exfoliation, which occurred only during the direct fluorination at 480 °C. As a consequence, CNFs fluorinated by TbF4 develop the highest faradic yield for a use in primary lithium battery.