Résumé : Objective: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) are well known to modulate T cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that mark hBM-MSCs immunomodulation of T cells are not fully resolved. Materials and methods: hBM-MSCs harvested from sternum or iliac crest of five healthy donors and characterized in accordance with the International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) guidelines are co-cultured with T cells. Additionally, modulatory effects of MSCs on T-cell viability, proliferation, cytokine profile, co-stimulatory pathway, activation and immunomodulation are also determined. Results: hBM-MSCs significantly reduced the expression of T-cell activation marker CD38 as well as co-stimulatory markers CD134 and CD154, whilst that of CD27 remained unchanged. BrdU, CFSE and Ki67 proliferation assays showed that hBM-MSCs reduced T-cell proliferation. Moreover, viability of T cells remained unchanged when co-cultured with hBM-MSCs. Finally, T cells when co-cultured with hBM-MSCs showed increased secretion of IL-10 and IL-11. Conclusion: Collectively, hBM-MSCs are able to modulate the main steps involved in T-cell response toward a tolerogenic state. Thus, establishing immunobiological criteria defining the immunosuppressive effect of hBM-MSCs is of importance to reach efficient immunotherapeutic intervention.