Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : One hundred and forty-six anthraco-silicotic coal-miners presenting with a clinical picture of broncho-pulmonary infection were submitted to a transtracheal puncture. Out of 143 assessable samples, 77 (53.8%) yielded positive cultures. A single organism was recovered in 69 patients (H. influenzae: 34 cases; Str.pneumoniae: 20 cases; Neisseria sp.: 8 cases; Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 6 cases; Corynebacterium pseudo-diphteriticum: 1 case) and 2 organisms in 8 patients (H. influenzae+Str.pneumoniae). In 58 patients, the efficacy of co-trimoxazole, ampicillin and josamycin was assessed in a double-blind comparative trial on clinical and bacteriological grounds. A second transtracheal aspiration was performed 48 h after completion of a 10-day course of treatment. Co-trimoxazole and ampicillin were equally active, and assessed together were significantly superior to josamycin. © 1977 Oxford University Press.