Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Since the approval of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), 3 other HER2-targeting agents have gained regulatory approval: lapatinib, pertuzumab, and trastuzumab-emtansine. These agents have revolutionized the management of HER2-positive breast cancer, highlighting the concept that targeted therapies are successful when patients exhibit tumor-selective expression of a molecular target-in this case, HER2. However, response prediction and innate or acquired resistance remain serious concerns. Predictive biomarkers of a response-which could help in the selection of patients who might benefit from a selected targeted therapy-are currently lacking. Molecular imaging with anti-HER2 probes allows the noninvasive, whole-body assessment of HER2 tumor burden and has the potential to improve patient selection, optimize the dose and schedule, and rationalize assessment of the response to anti-HER2 therapies. Furthermore, unlike biopsy-based HER2 assessment, this approach can reveal inter-or intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variations in HER2 expression over time. This review summarizes the available literature and the current status of molecular imaging as a tool for the assessment of HER2 (target) expression or the prediction of an early treatment response in early and advanced HER2-positive breast cancer.