The innate immune system is an important mechanism that protects the host from infection. Viral and bacterial infection triggers activation of the transcription factors interferon response factor (IRF) 3 and nuclear factor (NF)-kB. These transcription factors collaborate to induce transcription of type I interferons (IFNs) cytokines and the interleukin (IL)-12 family of cytokines. Type I IFN and the IL-12 family of cytokines play a critical role in establishing innate immune responses as well as initiating and directing adaptive responses. Our study focused on the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Toll-like (TLR)-dependent and –independent activation of IRF-3 and NF-kB and their subsequent regulation of IFN-beta and the IL-12 family of cytokines.