Thèse de doctorat
Résumé : Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), together with the analyses of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, confirm what our day to day experience of life attests : antimatter is far less present than matter in the Universe. In addition, these observables also permit to evaluate that there exists about one proton for every 10^{10} photons present in the Universe. This is in contradiction with expectations coming from the standard hot big bang, where no distinction between matter and antimatter is made, and where subsequent annihilations would lead to equal matter and antimatter contents, at a level 10^{−10} smaller than the observed one. The Standard Model of fundamental interactions fails to explain this result, leading us to search for ‘Beyond the Standard Model’ physics.

Among the possible mechanism which could be responsible for the creation of such a matter asymmetry, leptogenesis is particularly attractive because it only relies on the same ingredients previously introduced to generate neutrino masses. Unfortunatelly, this elegant proposal suffers from a major difficulty : it resists to any tentative of being probed by our low energy observables. In this thesis, we tackle the problem the other way around and propose a way to falsify this mechanism. Considering the type-I leptogenesis mechanism, i.e. a mechanism based on the asymmetric decay of right-handed neutrinos, in a left-right symmetric framework, we show that the observation of a right-handed gauge boson W_R at future colliders would rule out any possibility for such mechanism to be responsible of the matter asymmetry present in our Universe.

Another intriguing question that analyses of the anisotropies of the CMB confirmed is the presence of a non-baryonic component of matter in our Universe, i.e. the dark matter. As hinted by observations of galactic rotation curves, it should copiously be present in our galactic halo, but is notoriously difficult to detect directly. We can take advantage on the fact that antimatter almost disappeared from our surroundings to detect the contamination of cosmic rays from standard sources the annihilation products of dark matter would produce.

The second subject tackled in this work is the study of the imprints the Inert Doublet Modem (IDM) could leave in (charged) cosmic rays, namely positrons, antprotons and antideuterons. This model, first proposed to allow the Bout-Englert-Higgs particle to evade the Electroweak Precision Test (EWPT) measurements, introduces an additional scalar doublet which is inert in the sense that it does not couple directly to fermions. This latter property brings an additional virtue to this additional doublet : since it interacts weakly with particles, it can play the role of dark matter. This study will be done in the light of the data recently released by the PAMELA, ATIC and Fermi-GLAST collaborations, which reported e^± excesses in two different energy ranges.