|Résumé :||This thesis is devoted to the study of the nature of Dark Matter (DM). To this end we investigate both its generation mechanisms and detection possibilities. We mainly focus on interesting simple models and follow closely experimental constraints, in order to reveal the features of DM as model-independently as possible.
Throughout the whole thesis, we consider the framework of standard cosmology, which is first introduced in Chapter.1 (and supplemented in Appendices). Background knowledges of DM physics from the cosmological and experimental aspects are given in Chapter.2 and Chapter.3, respectively.
Following the scenario that a hidden sector, including DM particles, might decouple from the Standard Model (SM) sector at a very early time of the Universe, we study how through a portal interaction such a hidden sector can be created by the SM sector to yield the proper relic density of dark matter. In Chapter.4 we discuss the case of a massless portal using the gauge kinetic mixing model. It turns out that there are four basic ways to achieve the observed DM relic density for both massless and massive mediator cases: freeze-in from SM sector, reannihilation determined by the balance of the two sectors, freeze-out with hidden or portal interactions. Various models with massive portals, especially $Z'$ and scalar portals, are then explored in Chapter.5. Provided that DM annihilation within the hidden sector is kinetically allowed, similar conclusions would appear. If there is no hidden annihilation for DM, only the first and last ways are allowed. Nevertheless, chemical thermalization in hidden sector can still influence the results significantly.
In Chapter.6, we explore the hypothesis that dark matter particles partially annihilate to photons via a new heavy charged particle which is also "gauged" under SU(3)_C. By applying this hypothesis to the claimed
Fermi-LAT 130 GeV gamma line, it is showed that the correct dark matter relic density could be naturally obtained from the gluon channel and how for such a class of models the cosmic antiproton, diffuse gamma-ray, direct detection and LHC constraints
are fully correlated.
In Chapter.8, concluding remarks and perspectives for future DM research are presented.