|Résumé :||The initial question addressed in this thesis is how to take into account the multi-objective aspect of decision problems in inverse optimization. The most straightforward extension consists of finding a minimal adjustment of the objective functions coefficients such that a given feasible solution becomes efficient. However, there is not only a single question raised by inverse multi-objective optimization, because there is usually not a single efficient solution. The way we define inverse multi-objective
optimization takes into account this important aspect. This gives rise to many questions which are identified by a precise notation that highlights a large collection of inverse problems that could be investigated. In this thesis, a selection of inverse problems are presented and solved. This selection is motivated by their possible applications and the interesting theoretical questions they can rise in practice.