Thèse de doctorat
Résumé : In a near future, the computation power will be widely used in endoscopy rooms. It will enable the augmented reality already implemented in some surgery. Before reaching this, a preliminary step is the development of a 3D reconstruction endoscope. In addition to that, endoscopists suffer from a lack of quantitative data to evaluate dimensions and distances, notably for the polyp size measurement.

In this thesis, a contribution to more a robust 3D reconstruction endoscopic device is proposed. Structured light technique is used and implemented using a diffractive optical element. Two patterns are developed and compared: the first is based on the spatial-neighbourhood coding strategy, the second on the direct-coding strategy. The latter is implemented on a diffractive optical element and used in an endoscopic 3D reconstruction device. It is tested in several conditions and shows excellent quantitative results but the robustness against bad visual conditions (occlusions, liquids, specular reflection,...) must be improved.

Based on this technology, an endoscopic ruler is developed. It is dedicated to answer endoscopists lack of measurement system. The pattern is simplified to a single line to be more robust. Quantitative data show a sub-pixel accuracy and the device is robust in all tested cases. The system has then been validated with a gastroenterologist to measure polyps. Compared to literature in this field, this device performs better and is more accurate.