|Résumé :||Since decades, drop impact has been a popular topic of investigation for the importance that such a phenomenology has in many different application domains.
So far, the effect of micro-particles on the drop impact morphology has been studied for a limited number of configurations and often modelled as a change in the viscosity of the carrier fluid. However, this approach has been found sometimes questionable. The aim of the thesis is to better understand the phenomenology associated with particle-laden drop impact such as the distribution of particles in splats and to extend the number of experimental configurations for particle-laden drop impact to occur.
The impact of millimetre-size particle-laden drops was investigated for hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. The drops were dispersions of water and round, spherical and nearly iso-dense hydrophobic particles with diameters around 200 µm and 500 µm. The substrates were transparent glass and polycarbonate plates. The impact was studied by side, bottom and angle view images in the range 148≤We≤744 and 7092≤Re≤16368.
The particles were found to suppress the appearance of singular jetting and drop partial rebound, and also cause early splashing, receding break-up and rupture. The occurrences of these phenomena depend on the impact velocity, particles’ diameter and volume fraction. The drops with 200 µm particles spread in two phases: fast and slow, caused by inertial and capillary forces, respectively. Also, the increase of volume fraction of 200 µm particle leads to a linear decrease of the maximum spreading factor caused by the inertia force on the hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. The comparison of our data and the existing ones for splashing led to the formulation of а new splashing criterion for particle-laden drops. The novel criterion improves upon current models in predicting the splashing threshold by introducing effect of particle volume fraction and particle wettability. The analysis of particle distribution showed that 200 µm particles formed atypical distributions in splats after the impact in contrast to 500 µm particles with random pattern. The 200 µm particles formed rings/disks and a crown-like structure on hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, respectively. These patterns were described by correlations.