||Here we evaluated the graphite anodes activated by melamine, carbamide, ZnCl2 and H3PO4 in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Results indicated that the graphite activated by melamine, carbamide and zinc chloride, respectively, could improve the voltage output and power densities, as well as decrease the internal resistances. MFCs with graphite activated by melamine as anode achieved the highest maximum power generation (0.442W/m3), 26.8% greater than the untreated graphite. The reason for improved performance is the introduction of nitrogen-containing functional groups on the electrode that can increase the efficiency of electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode surface, enhance surface wettability and improve bacterial adhesion. The chemical activation processes are the most cost-effective because of simply immersion, no heating, no electrochemical process and no expensive chemicals.