Résumé : Objectives: To determine the point prevalence of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CNSE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates among hospitalized patients in Belgium. Methods: Twenty-four hospital-based laboratories prospectively collected 200 non-duplicated Enterobacteria-ceae isolates from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients over a 2 month period. All isolates were screened locally for decreased susceptibility to carbapenem drugs using a disc diffusion method according to CLSI interpretative criteria. CNSE strains were referred centrally for confirmation of carbapenemase by phenotypic and molecular testing. Results: From February to April 2012, 158 of the 4564 screened Enterobacteriaceae isolates were categorized as non-susceptible to carbapenems, resulting in a point prevalence of CNSE of 3.5% (95% CI: 2.9%-4.2%; range per centre: 0.5%-8.5%). Of the 125 referred CNSE isolates, 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates [OXA-48 (n1/47), KPC type (n1/43) and NDM type (n1/41)], 1 OXA-48-positive Escherichia coli isolate and 1 KPC-positive Kleb-siella oxytoca isolate were detected in eight hospitals. None of the 72 carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobac-ter spp. isolates were confirmed as CPE. The minimal estimated point prevalence of CPE isolates was 0.28% (13/ 4564; 95% CI: 0.13%-0.44%) overall (range per centre: 0%-1.5%). Conclusions: Despite the overall low prevalence of CNSE found in this study, the detection of CPE isolates in one-third of the participating centres raises concerns and highly suggests the spread and establishment of CPE in Belgian hospitals. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.