Résumé : From a retrospective material of 418 consecutive endoscopic papillotomies, incidence, clinical course and possible causes of acute pancreatitis following endoscopic treatment are studied. The overall frequency of 2,4 %, varied from 1,8 % in gallstones diseases up to 9 % in other conditions. In ≪ one step ≫ papillotomies, acute pancreatitis occurs in 0,6 % of gallstones indications and in 5 % of other conditions. In case of difficult and/or special manipulations (pre-cutting, main pancreatic duct sphincterotomies) the incidence rises respectively to 6 and 16 % for gallstones group and other diseases. Treatments applied to prevent this complication are described. Prognosis seems to be good and no death was observed in this series. © 1986 Springer-Verlag.