Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : An overview of advances at the frontier between dynamical systems theory and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is given. Sensitivity to initial conditions is a mechanism at the origin of dynamical randomness-alias temporal disorder-in deterministic dynamical systems. In spatially extended systems, sustaining transport processes, such as diffusion, relationships can be established between the characteristic quantities of dynamical chaos and the transport coefficients, bringing new insight into the second law of thermodynamics. With methods from dynamical systems theory, the microscopic time-reversal symmetry can be shown to be broken at the statistical level of description in nonequilibrium systems. In this way, the thermodynamic entropy production turns out to be related to temporal disorder and its time asymmetry away from equilibrium.