Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : This paper summarizes our findings on the eye morphology, visual perception, learning abilities, navigation system and recruitment strategy of three Myrmica species, pointing out the agreement between each species' morphological, physiological and behavioral characters as well as the accordance between these characters and each species' environmental preferences. We also draw biological generalities and report other similar studies. Myrmica sabuleti workers have small eyes, perceive the dimension, number of basic elements and orientation of a visual cue but do not distinguish shapes from one another. They see the colors, perceive UV light and the perspective, and adapt their vision to the light intensity. They learn odors better than visual cues and essentially use odors to navigate. Myrmica ruginodis workers have large eyes, distinguish shapes, small see-through forms as well as patterns of luminous points located above them. They have no olfactory memory but a very long lasting visual one. They exclusively use visual cues located above them while travelling, relying on odors only when they no longer see. Myrmica rubra workers have eyes of middle size and distinguish filled shapes but not hollow forms. Their olfactory and visual conditioning lead to equivalent learning in the course of time and they use all available olfactory and visual elements for navigating. © 2014 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.