Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Currently, two modes of transmitting knowledge and know-how are cohabiting in the pastoral society of Provence. One mode of transmission is through the school for shepherds while the other one takes place on the farm and consists of an "in the field" type of learning. Besides enabling pupils to become somewhat acquainted with the gestures performed in this job, the school for shepherds provides a knowledge, a global vision of the flock and the career and a certain reflexivity on them. It entails an "ontological" distance between the gesture and the knowledge linked to it. In the " traditional" spheres of transmission, practices are acquired through a lengthy and loose type of learning. They are part of a lifestyle. Their transmission takes place in simultaneity with the internalization of the job standards and the shaping of an identity. A tension and a legitimacy conflict occur between the qualifying institution and the skilful shepherd who has the power of assessing the new recruit's qualities and of acknowledging him as a fully-fledged shepherd.