Résumé : Purpose: One major consequence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell activation during autoimmune uveitis is the induction of MHC II molecules expression at their surface. IFNγ is regarded as the main cytokine involved in this induction. As TNFα plays a central role in autoimmune uveitis, we investigated its effects on IFNγ-mediated MHC II induction on RPE cells. Methods: Retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were stimulated with IFNγ, TNFα and the anti-TNFα antibody infliximab. The expression of MHCII and ICAM-1 was analysed by flow cytometry. The activation and expression of IRF-1 and STAT-1, two proteins involved in IFNγ-signalling pathway, were analysed by WB. Class II transactivator (CIITA) expression was monitored by qRT-PCR and immunoprecipitation. Results: TNFα inhibits IFNγ-induced MHC II expression on ARPE cells in a dose-dependent manner. Infliximab completely reverses the inhibitory effect of TNFα. We did not observe an inhibitory effect of TNFα on the expression of ICAM-1 induced by IFNγ. Similarly, IFNγ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation and IRF1 expression were not affected by TNFα. On the contrary, we found that TNFα suppresses IFNγ-induced CIITA mRNA accumulation and protein expression. Conclusion: TNFα inhibits IFNγ-induced MHC II expression in RPE cells. This inhibitory effect was reversed by infliximab and was not because of a global inhibition of IFNγ -mediated RPE cell activation but rather to a specific down-regulation of CIITA expression. Those findings are consistent with the role of TNFα in the resolution of inflammation and might help to elucidate the complex development of autoimmune uveitis. © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.