Résumé : Most testicular features undergo major circannual variation in seasonal breeding species. Although the ultimate cause of these variations is known to be the photoperiod in most cases, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms by which these changes are modulated in the testis. Many genes involved in testis development are known to be expressed in the adult testis as well. Since these genes encode genetic regulatory factors, it is reasonable to suspect that they could play some role in the control of the adult testis function. Using immunological detection techniques and RT-Q-PCR, we have studied the spatio-temporal expression pattern of WT1, SF1, SOX9, AMH, and DMRT1 in 4 representative stages of the circannual cycle of the testes of Talpa occidentalis, a mole species with strict seasonal reproduction. AMH is not expressed at any stage of the cycle, showing that inactive adult testes are functionally different from pre-pubertal, juvenile ones. The continuous presence of primary spermatocytes may explain the permanent repression of AMH in the mole testis. WT1 and SF1 are down-regulated and SOX9 is up-regulated in regressed mole testes, suggesting that the modulation of the expression of these genes may be involved in the control of circannual gonad variation. Furthermore, SOX9 and DMRT1 show clear spermatogenic stage-dependent expression patterns. Both genes are expressed more intensely during the proliferative stages of spermatogonia, although SOX9 expression is limited to Sertoli cells, whereas DMRT1 is expressed in both Sertoli and spermatogonial cells. Available data suggest that intratesticular levels of testosterone could regulate circannual spermatogenic variations of seasonal breeders by modulating the expression of DMRT1 to control spermatogonial proliferation. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.