Résumé : Uridine was administered in the drinking water (0.5 mg/ml) in adult 6 month-old rats for 6 months. The mean daily dose of uridine was 12.5 mg/rat. The effects of this treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, galanin, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivities were studied by means of semiquantitative immunocytochemistry using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase procedure in combination with image analysis. A decrease of somatostatin, cholecystokinin and galanin-like immunoreactivities in nerve terminals was observed in various brain areas of 12 month-old animals compared with 3 month-old animals, while the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase-like immunoreactivity were unchanged. Uridine-treated animals showed a decrease of galanin, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivities in nerve terminals of some diencephalic areas and an increase of cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity in nerve terminals of most of the telencephalic brain areas in comparison with vehicle treated animals of the same age. It is suggested that the pyrimidine nucleoside uridine can affect the synthesis and/or degradation of mRNAs involved in the synthesis of neuropeptides via direct nuclear actions and/or indirect actions involving effects on receptor activated phosphoinositide metabolism. Uridine offers a new way to modulate central peptide synapses. © 1988.