Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are frequently co-infected with hepatitis B and/or C virus (HBV/HCV). The safety of etravirine was investigated over 96 weeks in patients co-infected with HIV type-1 (HIV-1) and HBV and/or HCV in the Phase III DUET trials. DUET-1 and DUET-2 are registered with (NCT00254046 and NCT00255099, respectively). Methods: Treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected patients with documented non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance were randomized to receive either etravirine 200 mg or placebo, both twice daily plus a background regimen of darunavir/ritonavir, investigator-selected nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and optional enfuvirtide. Hepatitis co-infection status was confirmed by hepatitis B surface antigen or HCV antibody and qualitative HCV RNA. Co-infected patients were eligible if they did not require anti-hepatitis treatment and were clinically stable, with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations <5× the upper limit of normal. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory parameters were analysed. Results: Data were available for 566 etravirine-and 564 placebo-treated patients, of whom 72 (13%) and 68 (12%), respectively, were co-infected with HBV/HCV. Irrespective of co-infection status, the etravirine and placebo groups were comparable for the incidence of grade 3/4 AEs [co-infected: 31 (43%) versus 31 (46%) patients, respectively; non-co-infected: 200 (40%) versus 176 (35%), respectively] and serious AEs [co-infected: 25 (35%) versus 25 (37%), respectively; non-co-infected: 123 (25%) versus 119 (24%), respectively]. Consistent with the underlying hepatitis, relative to non-co-infected patients the co-infected patients, had a higher incidence of hepatic AEs [co-infected: 13 (18%) etravirine-treated versus 10 (15%) placebo-treated patients; non-co-infected: 36 (7%) versus 32 (6%), respectively], and grade 3/4 elevation of AST [co-infected: 8 (11%) versus 5 (7%), respectively; non-co-infected: 14 (3%) versus 9 (2%), respectively] and ALT [co-infected: 10 (14%) versus 6 (9%), respectively; non-co-infected: 14 (3%) versus 8 (2%), respectively]. Discontinuation due to hepatic AEs was low and comparable between the treatment groups, regardless of co-infection status (two co-infected patients in each treatment group; five etravirine-treated versus two placebo-treated non-co-infected patients). Conclusions: Etravirine demonstrated a similar safety profile to placebo in the subgroup of patients co-infected with HIV and HBV and/or HCV in the DUET trials. The incidence and severity of AEs with etravirine was generally comparable to placebo irrespective of co-infection status. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.