par Fabeck, Laurent ;Descamps, Pierre-Yves ;Bourgois, R;Dhem, Antoine
Référence Revue de chirurgie orthopédique et réparatrice de l'appareil moteur, 80, 3, page (181-187)
Publication Publié, 1994
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : INTRODUCTION: Several authors have reported evidence of loosening of the acetabular component in 14 per cent of cases at 10 years follow-up. To understand this phenomena, parametric studies of the acetabulum have involved finite element analysis, photo elastic models or strain gauges. The differing and sometimes contradictory results were due to the way the model was solicited. If the classic "Resultant" is accurate for the study of the forces on the hip, Pauwels described other forces on the pelvis during the gait. The effect of the application of these other forces on the acetabulum are the object of this study. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Four pelvises were loaded with different forces. Nine strain gauges were pasted around the acetabulum. The pelvis was loaded up to 140 Kg and a compressive force was applied to the pubis by 10 Kg increments up to 40 Kg. The stress data with and without the second force were recorded. A cortical window was bored on the anterior inferior iliac spine. Through this patch, the trabecular bone of the acetabular roof was cut up to disturb its mechanical properties. The load was once again applied to the pelvis and the stress data recorded. RESULTS: The compressive force applied to the symphyseal surface decreases the deformation of the posterior acetabular rim and increases deformation in the proximity of the ischio-iliac and iliopubic junctions. The disruption of trabecular bone generates an increase in deformation mainly perpendicularly to the acetabular rim. DISCUSSION: The decrease of the stress on the posterior acetabular rim is interpreted as a reduction of the solicitations on a fragile zone and its increase on the iliopubic and ischio iliac junctions expresses the application of the acetabular horn on the femoral head permitting better settling of the hip during the gait. The constatation of a stress increase around the acetabulum after disruption of the traecbular bone is interesting. The bone behavior with different acetabular cup models on different pelvis may be studied by strain gauges pasted on the cortical bone. The variable quality of the trabecular bone may introduce an error factor in the measurement. CONCLUSION: The deformation of the acetabulum during gait has to be studied following the different forces described by Pauwels. The compressive force on the pubic symphysis during one leg stance permits a decrease of the stress on the acetabular rim and an increase in the setting of the femoral head. Different qualities of trabecular bone change the deformation of the cortical bone for an equivalent load. This incites us, in comparative studies, to be careful in the deduction of the acetabular roof stresses from the recorded cortical bone deformations.