Résumé : In an attempt to determine whether the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used as a rapid approach for the identification of aneuploidy in premalignant cervical smears, a centromeric probe for chromosome 1 was used. The results from the FISH experiments were compared with measurements of the overall DNA content obtained by means of an image analysis system. With progression to neoplasia, a decrease of the frequency of cells with two spots was observed, due to an increasing polysomy of chromosome 1. As far as the DNA content was concerned, an increasing DNA index and 5C-exceeding ratio (fraction of cells with a DNA content higher than 5C) was observed. Classification of the FISH results by a linear discriminant analysis revealed that 67.6% of the cases were classified in agreement with the CIN classification. These data suggest that chromosome 1 may be considered as a marker chromosome for pre-malignant cervical lesions and that the DNA content measurements are complementary to the FISH results. © 1995 Chapman & Hall.