Résumé : Purpose: Mood disorders are present in more than 90% of suicides, and a genetic vulnerability to suicidality is well established. Numerous lines of evidence relate the transcription factor Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Response Element Binding protein (CREB1) to suicide, and to the aetiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our aim was to test for association between CREB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and both suicide risk and a personal history of suicide attempts in MDD patients. Materials and Methods: A sample of two hundred fifty MDD patients collected in the context of a European multicenter resistant depression study and treated with antidepressants over a period of at least 4 weeks were genotyped for five CREB1 SNPs (rs2709376, rs2253206, rs7569963, rs7594560, and rs4675690). To assess suicidality, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) were applied. Results: Neither single-marker nor haplotypic association were found between suicide risk and/or a personal history of suicide attempts with any of the investigated SNPs after multiple testing correction. For females, an association between rs2709376 and a personal history of suicide attempts was found (p = 0.016), however not resisting multiple testing correction. Conclusions: Although we found significant CREB1 single marker association with a personal history of suicide attempts in female MDD patients, this finding could not be confirmed in haplotypic analyses after multiple testing correction. Larger well-defined cohorts are required to confirm or refute a possible association of CREB1 and suicide attempts in female MDD patients.