Résumé : The purpose of this review is to provide a knowledge update and a comprehensive literature review of the genus Afzelia, a complex of sister species exploited for their timber in Central Africa. The distribution of Afzelia species in Africa suggests that the tree has made various adaptations due to ecological factors. However, on the basis of only vegetative criteria, it is difficult to distinguish species in forest inventory, and this could compromise the sustainable management approach promoted by the populations of Central African countries. We show that the genus remains generally understudied, although some of its species are considered by the IUCN as being under threat. Therefore, the ecological and genetic aspects of our investigations should prove relevant to the future cultivation of Afzelia.