Résumé : Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) makes up around one-third of all cases of SE, affecting approximately 1,000 to 4,000 individuals per year in Belgium. Compared with convulsive SE, NCSE has received considerably less attention, is underdiagnosed and undertreated. However, if recognised, NCSE can however be treated successfully. A workshop was convened by neurologists from major Belgian centres to review the latest information on NCSE and to make recommendations on diagnosis and treatment. These recommendations are not only intended for neurologists, but also for primary care physicians and physicians in intensive care units. NCSE should be suspected whenever cases of fluctuating consciousness or abrupt cognitive or behavioural changes are noted. Confirmation of diagnosis by EEG should be obtained wherever possible. In view of the often subtle clinical signs, EEG is also vital for monitoring treatment outcome. Non-comatose patients should generally be treated in a neurology ward since referral to an ICU is unnecessary. First-line treatment should be an intravenous benzodiazepine. For many patients who fail to respond to benzodiazepines, intravenous valproate will successfully abrogate seizure activity. Intravenous phenytoin can be used in patients with focal NCSE in whom valproate is contraindicated or ineffective. Time and care should be spent in identifying an appropriate and effective antiepileptic drug regimen without recourse to anaesthesia. For comatose patients, treatment intensity should be graded according to epilepsy history, general medical state and prognosis. In some patients, intensive remedial measures may allow rapid resolution of NSCE, whereas in more vulnerable patients, such treatment may be counterproductive.