Résumé : BACKGROUND:: The authors calculated the effect size for treatments recommended for the pediatric population in the new Guidelines for the Management of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting that should be implemented with the help of a new risk scale developed for children. METHODS:: Six single-drug therapies and five combination treatments were subjected to a Bayesian analysis, with respect to the outcome reported, in a sequence that parallels their dates of publication. Based on the Bayes theorem, a posterior probability was calculated after inclusion of the data from the successive studies, to update a prior probability existing before inclusion of that study. The posterior for the preceding group of trials served as the prior for the subsequent trial. The final odds ratio with its 95% credibility interval compared with placebo is considered as the results for that treatment, and was transformed into a relative risk whose 95% credibility interval allows the calculation of a most pessimistic and a most optimistic incidence of postoperative vomiting. RESULTS:: The most pessimistic expectations with the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists and dexamethasone result in a 50-60% relative risk reduction. The results with droperidol offer a decrease of only approximately 40%. With the combinations of a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist and dexamethasone, a relative risk reduction of approximately 80% is expected. CONCLUSIONS:: The authors' tables list the expected incidence of postoperative vomiting with each treatment for each risk category, and the expected relative risks that can be used with baseline risk values from any source. © 2008, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc.