Résumé : Seeds of Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels are collected in Madagascar to prepare Madeglucyl®, a locally used antidiabetic preparation for type 2 diabetes treatment. For ex situ conservation of the Malagasy S. cuminii germplasm and to provide a continuous seed supply, a simple procedure for its in vitro clonal propagation was established. Nodal stem segments from in vitro raised 10-week-old seedlings were cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium (1/2MS) supplemented with various cytokinins, benzylaminopurine (BA), thidiazuron (TDZ) and N6-(2-isopentenyl) (2iP) adenine, at different concentrations and in combination with an auxin, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The most effective hormone concentration for shoot multiplication from axillary buds was 4.4 μM BA, providing an average of 7.5 shoots per node after six weeks of culture. In liquid medium, cultures could be maintained without subculturing for more than 4 months and yielded an average of 6.9 shoots per explant. The in vitro-propagated shoots produced adventitious roots when transferred to 1/2MS medium supplemented with either indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or NAA. The best rooting was obtained in medium supplemented with 0.5 μM NAA with almost 90% of the plantlets developing an average of 5.9 adventitious roots per shoot. More than 70% of the rooted plantlets were successfully established in soil and showed uniform growth. At present, the plants are ready to be transferred for in situ cultivation to produce seeds for commercial purpose. © 2008 Royal Botanical Society of Belgium.