par Rouchaud, Jean;Moulard, Claude ;Eelen, H.;Bulcke, Robert
Référence Toxicological and environmental chemistry, 85, 4-6, page (103-120)
Publication Publié, 2003-07
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : On four winter wheat fields grown on soils of different textures in Belgium, 10 g a.i. ha-1 of the sulfonylurea herbicide iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied post-emergence in the spring. A procedure was developed for the analysis in field soils of iodosulfuron-methyl 1 and of its metabolites iodosulfonamide 2 and iodosaccharin 3 with a sensitivity limit of 0.3 μg of equivalents of iodosulfuron-methyl 1 kg -1 dry soil. GC and GC-MS was used after purification of the soil extracts by repeated TLC, and methylation. The results of the chemical analyses were confirmed by means of bioassays using sugar beet as test plants. On a winter wheat crop grown on sandy loam soil of pH 6.2 at Melle, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 1 was applied at the beginning of April. The iodosulfuron-methyl 1 soil half-life in the 0-10 cm surface soil layer was 60 days. At the end of June, the sum of the concentrations of the metabolites 2 and 3 in the 0-10 cm surface soil layer attained a maximum corresponding to 27% of the applied dose. Green manures were sown after the harvest of the wheat at the end of August. No phytotoxicity at all was observed during the growth of the green manures, in spite of the very low residues of iodosulfuron-methyl 1 remaining in soil in September and October. At the mid of November, iodosulfuron-methyl 1 and its metabolites 2 and 3 were no more detected in soil. On three other winter wheat crops grown on clay soils of pH of about 8 at Leke, Gistel and Zevekote, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium 1 was applied at the beginning of May. The soil half-life of iodosulfuron-methyl 1 in the 0-10 cm surface soil layer was between 30 and 44 days. Since the application and until the mid of November, in all the trials made on sandy loam or clay soils, iodosulfuron-methyl 1 (and its metabolites 2 and 3 in the trial made on sandy loam soil) were never detected in the 10-15 and 15-20 cm surface soil layers, indicating their low mobilities in the field soils.