Résumé : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer related death in the western countries. It remains an important health problem, often under-diagnosed. The symptoms can appear very late and about 25% of the patients are diagnosed at metastatic stage. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited colorectal cancer syndrome, characterized by the early onset of hundred to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. Left untreated, there is a nearly 100% cumulative risk of progression to CRC by the age of 35-40 years (1,2), as well as an increased risk of various other malignancies. CRC can be prevented by the identification of the high risk population and by the timely implementation of rigid screening programs which will lead to special medico-surgical interventions.