Résumé : The HIV NET 012 protocol for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV, a single-dose of nevirapine given to the mother during labor and one given to the newborn, has been adopted by several developing countries. The implementation of this protocol may be difficult in African rural regions and must be evaluated. The study was carried out at the Oicha General Hospital, Democratic Republic of Congo. HIV-infected women with a gestational age ≥36 weeks were offered participation in the study during a prenatal visit. Among the 5,016 women tested during prenatal attendance from December 2002 to December 2004, 94 (1.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.3%) were HIV-infected. Among these women, 59 (62.8%; 95% CI: 53.0-72.6%) received nevirapine and 35 (37.2%; 95% CI: 27.4-47.0%) did not receive nevirapine prophylaxis. Twenty-six (27.7%) of these women arrived fully dilated and 9 (9.5%) were not given the drug by the midwives. Among the 59 HIV-infected pregnant women who received nevirapine before delivery, 33 (55.9%, 95% CI: 43.2-68.6%) received the drug at the start of uterine contractions and 24 (40.7%; 95% CI: 28.2-53.2%) did not receive nevirapine within the recommended time before delivery. Two women (3.4%) received nevirapine, but this was not written in the logbook. Overall, among the 101 newborns, all children received a single-dose nevirapine: 48 (47.5%; 95% CI: 37.8-57.2%) of the 101 newborns received nevirapine in the 24-72 hr following birth and 52 (51.5%; 95% CI: 41.8-61.2%) just after birth when their mother did not receive nevirapine. Even for a protocol as simple as HIV prophylaxis with a single-dose nevirapine, the application in African rural areas encounters field difficulties. Further simplified procedures and health care re-organization are still needed to guarantee a full Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission coverage for every HIV pregnant woman in Africa. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.