Résumé : Mutations that are selected at low frequency and/or reside outside the enfuvirtide target region, amino acid 36-45 of gp41, might still be important determinants for drug resistance. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic impact against enfuvirtide and sifuvirtide of uncharacterized gp41 mutations 42G, 43T and 50V, selected in patients failing enfuvirtide-containing regimens. As single mutations, neither 42G, 43T nor 50V conferred resistance to enfuvirtide. However, 50V increased slightly resistance levels for 36D, 38M, 43D or 43T as did 43T for 38M. All mutants displayed a reduced replication capacity, except 42S, 50V and 36D ± 50V. None of the mutants displayed resistance to the next-generation fusion inhibitor sifuvirtide. This study highlights the necessity to confirm the in vitro effect of infrequently selected mutations as 42G was not associated with enfuvirtide resistance whereas 43T and 50V should be considered as secondary enfuvirtide resistance mutations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.