Résumé : Background: In virologically suppressed patients, switching to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy could avoid resistance and adverse events from continuing nucleoside analogues. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-six patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL on current antiretrovirals were switched to darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily, either as monotherapy (n=127) or with two nucleoside analogues (n=129). Treatment failure was defined as two consecutive HIV RNA levels at least 50 copies/mL by week 96, or discontinuation of study drugs. The trial had 80% power to show non-inferiority (δ=-12%) at week 48. Results: Patients were 81% male, 91% Caucasian, and had a median baseline CD4 count of 575 cells/mm. 3. There were more patients with hepatitis C co-infection at baseline in the monotherapy arm (18%) compared with the triple therapy arm (12%). In the efficacy analysis, HIV RNA <50 copies/mL by week 96 (per protocol, time to loss of virological response, switch equals failure) was 78% versus 82% in the monotherapy and triple therapy arms [difference -4.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -14.3% to +5.8%]; in a switch included analysis, HIV RNA <50 copies/mL was 93% versus 92% (difference +1.6%, 95% CI -5.0% to +8.1%). The percentage of patients with HIV RNA <5 copies/mL (optical density from the sample equal to the negative control) remained constant over time in both treatment arms. Conclusions: In the week 96 analysis of the MONotherapy in Europe with TMC114 (MONET) trial, switching to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy showed non-inferior efficacy to darunavir/ritonavir plus two nucleoside analogues in the switch included and observed failure analyses, but not in the main switch equals failure analysis. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.