Résumé : The oncogenic protein BCL-3 activates or represses gene transcription through binding with the NF-κB proteins p50 and p52 and is degraded through a phospho- and GSK3-dependent pathway. However, the mechanisms underlying its degradation remain poorly understood. Yeast two-hybrid analysis led to the identification of the proteasome subunit PSMB1 as a BCL-3-associated protein. The binding of BCL-3 to PSMB1 is required for its degradation through the proteasome. Indeed, PSMB1-depleted cells are defective in degrading polyubiquitinated BCL-3. The N-terminal part of BCL-3 includes lysines 13 and 26 required for the Lys48-linked polyubiquitination of BCL-3. Moreover, the E3 ligase FBW7, known to polyubiquitinate a variety of substrates phosphorylated by GSK3, is dispensable for BCL-3 degradation. Thus, our data defined a unique motif of BCL-3 that is needed for its recruitment to the proteasome and identified PSMB1 as a key protein required for the proteasome-mediated degradation of a nuclear and oncogenic IκB protein. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.