Résumé : Background: After maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, many neonates affected by less apparent forms of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder (FASD) do not receive proper diagnosis or treatment. There is thus a need for laboratory markers for early detection of alcohol-exposed neonates. The aim of our study was to assess the efficiency of the usual alcohol biomarkers measured in cord blood to identify alcohol-exposed neonates immediately after birth. Methods: A 1-year study was conducted in the labor wards of the maternity units of the Auvergne, Central France at the time of term delivery. The patients answered an anonymous self-completion survey concerning alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT) during their pregnancy. Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyltransferase concentrations and the percentage of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin were measured in maternal and cord blood. Results: We collected 870 maternal-fetal sample pairs. Two cases (0.2%) of typical FASD were detected. We report a non-significant correlation between maternal and cord blood biomarkers. None of the cord blood biomarkers differed significantly between newborns of alcohol-exposed and unexposed mothers. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the usual alcohol biomarkers are not effective in cord blood for identifying alcohol-exposed neonates. ©2007 by Walter de Gruyter.