par Vanherweghem, Jean-Louis
Référence Revue Medicale de Bruxelles, 26, 1, page (3-6)
Publication Publié, 2005
Article révisé par les pairs
Résumé : Survival of extremely low birth weight infants has dramatically improved in the last decade of the twentieth century. The objective of our study was to evaluate the neurological evolution of the surviving infants because frequent motor, sensitive and psychological disturbances are related. Prospective, longitudinal study in a population of newborns, nursed in our neonatal intensive care unit and born between 1992 and 2001 with less than 1.000 g and/or less than 28 weeks of gestational age (GA). Neurological assessment of outcome was made using the neurodevelopmental score (O.M.S. 1988) at 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Neurological follow-up every year and neuropsychological testing at 3, 5 and 8 years. Only children with at least 2 years of follow-up were included. The children were grouped in 3 categories: M (major neurological handicap), m (minor neurological handicap), N (normal neurological outcome). To evaluate the evolution with time, we compared the results from the first period (1992 to 1996) to the second part of this decade (1997 to 2001). Mortality fell from 38% (27/70) in the first period (1992-1996) to 18% (8/44) in the second one (1997-2001) (p = 0.02) including neonates of less than 25 weeks GA. Neurodevelopmental status improved and severe brain lesions decreased (25% with intraventricular haemorrhage III & IV and cystic periventricular leukomalacia versus 6% in the second period) (p = 0.017). Major handicap fell from 26% (9/34) to 16% (5/31) and normal neurological evolution raised from 15% (5/34) to 48% (15/31) (p = 0.013). With the survival of newborns less than 28 weeks, the severe ocular complications increased: 6% (5/79). In conclusion, mortality and quality of life have significantly improved in the past 10 years in our service. Severe brain lesions have decreased under a better multifactorial management. Nevertheless when the gestational age of the surviving babies diminishes, ocular sequelae increase. We still think that prematurity remains a burden for the child, his family and the society.