Résumé : Background:Diagnosis of childhood active tuberculosis (aTB) or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) remains a challenge, and replacement of tuberculin skin tests (TST) by commercialized interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) is not currently recommended.Methods:266 children between 1 month and 15 years of age, 214 being at risk of recent Mtb infection and 51 being included as controls, were prospectively enrolled. According results of clinical evaluation, TST, chest X-Ray and microbiology, children were classified as non-infected, LTBI or aTB. Long-incubation time PPD-, ESAT-6-, and CFP-10-IGRA were performed and evaluated for their accuracy to correctly classify the children.Results:Whereas both TST and PPD-IGRA were suboptimal to detect aTB, combining CFP-10-IGRA with TST or with PPD-IGRA allowed us to detect all the children with aTB, with 96% specificity for children who were positive for CFP-10-IGRA. Moreover, combination of CFP-10- and PPD-IGRA also detected 96% of children classified as LTBI, but a strong IFN-γ response to CFP-10 (>500 pg/ml) was highly suggestive of aTB at least among children less than 3 years old.Conclusions:Long-incubation time CFP-10- and PPD-IGRA should help the clinicians to identify quickly aTB or LTBI in young children.