Résumé : *Unravelling mechanisms that control plant growth as a function of nutrient availability presents a major challenge in plant biology. This study reports the first transcriptome response to long-term (1 wk) magnesium (Mg) depletion and restoration in Arabidopsis thaliana. *Before the outbreak of visual symptoms, genes responding to Mg starvation and restoration were monitored in the roots and young mature leaves and compared with the Mg fully supplied as control. *After 1 wk Mg starvation in roots and leaves, 114 and 2991 genes were identified to be differentially regulated, respectively, which confirmed the later observation that the shoot development was more affected than the root in Arabidopsis. After 24 h of Mg resupply, restoration was effective for the expression of half of the genes altered. We emphasized differences in the expression amplitude of genes associated with the circadian clock predominantly in leaves, a higher expression of genes in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, in the reactive oxygen species detoxification and in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus. Some of these observations at the molecular level were verified by metabolite analysis. *The results obtained here will help us to better understand how changes in Mg availability are translated into adaptive responses in the plant.